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【深度】全球典型地热田简介,利用地热能源

文章附图

1哥斯达黎加的典型地热田

MIRAVALLESRETIANSHIZHONGMEIZHOUZUIDADERETIAN。RETIANWEIYUGESIDALIJIAXIBEIBUDEGuanacasteSHENG,LIGEGUOSHOUDOUSHENGHOUSAIYUE150GONGLI。DIRETIANCHULUYUMiravallesHUOSHANDEXINANBU。KEKESIBANKUAIFUCHONGDAOJIALEBIHAIBANKUAIZHIXIAXINGCHENGLEANSHANYANDAOHUHUOSHANLIAN。RECHUWEIANSHANYAN,SHIYIGEDIANXINGDEYISHUIWEIZHUDEDIRETIAN。1994NIANRETIANKAISHIFADIAN,ZHUANGJIRONGLIANGWEI55MW。1998NIANDILIANGTAO55MWJIZUTOURUYUNXING。DAO2000NIAN,GAIRETIANZONGZHUANGJIDADAO140MW。MUQIAN,GAIRETIANDEZHUYAOWENTISHIRECHUYALICHIXUXIAJIANG,JIKECHIXUKAIFALIYONGZAOCHENGWEIXIE。



2菲律宾典型地热田

TONGONANGDIRETIANWEIYUFEILVBINZHONGDONGBULAITEDAO,ZAILVSONGDAOTONGMIANLANLAODAOZHIJIAN。1983NIAN,112.5MWDIANZHANTOURUYUNXING,JIESHULEGAIDIQUQUEDIANSHAONENGDE“HEIANSHIDAI”。MUQIAN,GAIDIRETIANDEZHUANGJIRONGLIANGYIJINGDADAO723MW,SHIFEILVBINDEZHUGANDIRETIAN。

Tongonang地热田处于通过莱特岛的菲律宾断层上。地热田面积大约为15km2 。地形起伏很大。地热田有三个蒸汽生产区:Upper Mahiao(UM)(125MW),Tongonag-1(TGN-1)(112.5MW)以及Malitbog South Sambaloran(MS-SS)(231MW)。在UM地区有14口生产井,9口回灌井。

ZICONG1983NIANTOURUFADIANSHENGCHANYILAI,SHENGCHANLISHIDATISHANGKEYIFENWEILIANGGEZHUYAOJIEDUAN:YI、1983DAO1995NIANTGN-1DANDUYUNXINGJIEDUAN;ER、1996NIANKAISHIDESANGEQUYUTONGSHIYUNXINGJIEDUAN。CONG2000NIANQI,XIANGDANGYU50MWDEZHENGQIKAISHICONGGAIDIRETIANXIANGLINJINDEMahanagdongDIRETIANSHUSONG。

ZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,DIRETIANDERECHUCENGFASHENGLEBIANHUA。QIZHONGBAOKUO:HUIGUANSHUILIURUSHENGCHANQU;QUANQIURETIANGUIMODEFEITENG;DIRETIANZHOUBIANLENGSHUIDERUQIN。DUICEBAOKUOGAIBIANHUIGUANQUYU、JIANSHAOZHOUBIANQUYUSHENGCHANJINGDECHANLIANGDENG。ZHEIXIECUOSHIYOUXIAODEJIANHUANLEDIRETIANCHULISHUAIJIAN,WEIKECHIXUKAIFACHUANGZAOLETIAOJIAN(Dacillo and Siega,2003,Salonga et al,2004)。



3墨西哥典型地热田

CERRO PRIETODIRETIANWEIYUJUMO、MEIBIANJING30kmDEMOXIGEYICE。TASHIQIJINRENGRANCHUYUSHANGYEYUNXINGDEZUIDADEYETIZHUDAODEDIRETIAN(Lippmann et al.,2004)。TASHIYIGEJUDADE,GAOWEN(DAYU300℃)DEDIRETIAN。TAXINGCHENGYUSUOERDUNDICAONANDUAN。RECHUCENGWEICHENJIYANHEZHUNCHENJIYAN。TASHIYIGEDIANXINGDEYETIZHUDAODEDIRETIAN。

JUGUSUAN,GAIDIRETIANDEFADIANQIANLIWEI780DAO800MW,BINGQIEKEYIWEICHI30NIAN。DAO2000NIAN,GAIDIRETIANDEZHUANGJIRONGLIANGYIJINGDADAO720MW,YOU1.15YItDEDIRELIUTIBEICHOUQUCHULAI。

目前生产区的面积为18km2棋乐游。1986年以前,地热流体主要采自位于热田西部的浅层热储。1986年以后,地热流体主要采自分布于全区的深层热储(大于1.6km)。热储层的分布受NE-SW向断层的控制。

棋乐游ZAOQIKAIFAZAOCHENGDERECHUJIANYAHENKUAIJIUDAILAILEDIWENDANSHUIDUIXIBUQIANCENGRECHUDERUQIN。HOUQIDEQUANQUDAGUIMOKAIFAZEDAOZHISHENCENGRECHUFASHENGLEDUOZHONGBIANHUA,BAOKUOFEITENG、RETIANZHOUBIANDIXIASHUIRUJIN、XIANGFENLIDENG。ZHEIXIEWULIGUOCHENGYOUYINQIDIRELIUTIDEHUAXUECHENGFENBIANHUA。

棋乐游JINGUANDUONIANDEKAIFADAOZHILEDIRETIANBUFENDIDAIDEJIANYAYUJIANGWEN。DANSHI,MUQIANRETIANDEWENDUHEYALIRENGYUANYUANGAOYURETIANSHENGCHANSUOXUDEZUIDIYALI。



4印度尼西亚典型地热田

KAMOJIANGDIRETIANSHIYINDUNIXIYADIYIGETOURUSHANGYEXINGYUNXINGDEDIRETIAN。RETIANWEIYUXIZHUAWASHENGSHOUFUBANDUNDONGNANYUE40km。1983NIANJIKAISHIFADIAN。1987NIANDADAOMUQIANDEZHUANGJIRONGLIANG140MW。GAIRETIANSHIGANZHENGQIXINGDEHUOSHANQUGAOWENDIRETIAN。BUNINGQITIZHANZHENGQIZONGLIANGBUDAO2%。RECHUYANSHIWEIANSHANYAN。RETIANDEKANTANZUIZAOYOUHELANHUOSHANDIAOCHAJUZAI1926DAO1929NIANJIANKAIZHAN,BINGQIESHIGONGLEXIAOKONGJINGZUANKONG。1971NIANQIYINDUNIXIYAHEXINXILANZHENGFUGONGTONGZUZHILEXINYILUNDEKANTAN。DAO1975NIANZAIGAIRETIANGONGSHIGONGLE5KOUKANTANJING,SHENDUDA700m。QIZHONGLIANGKOUJINGZAI600mCENGDUANCHANCHU232℃DEZHENGQI。DAOMUQIANWEIZHI,ZAIGAIRETIANYIJINGSHIGONGLE77KOUJING,YOU33KOUSHENGCHANJING。JINGUANDIRETIANCHANCHUDEJIBENSHANGSHIGANZHENGQI,DANSHI,JIEGOUXIANXIANGYIJINGYOUSUOFAXIAN。


5新西兰典型地热田

WAIRAKEIRETIANSHIWEIYUXINXILANBEIDAODETAOBOHUBEIANDETAOBOANSHANYANHUOSHANDAIDEYIBUFEN。RETIANDETIANRANFANGRELIANGWEI300DAO600MW。ZHILIANGCHANCHUWEI34560t/d。SHENBUZHUTONGDAODIRELIUTIWENDUWEI260DAO300℃。GAIRETIANSHISHIJIESHANGDIYIGETOURUFADIANDEYISHUIWEIZHUDAODEDIRETIAN。1958NIANKAISHIFADIAN,QIJINYIJINGYOUJIN50NIANDELISHI。MUQIANDEZHUANGJIRONGLIANGWEI220MW。ZHANGQIKAIFAZAOCHENGJIANYAHESHUIQILIANGXIANGDAIDECHUXIAN。GUANYUZHEIGERETIANDESHUZHIMONIZUOGUOHENDUO。ZUIJINDEMONIJIEGUOBIAOMIAN,WEILAIKAIFAZHONGYINGJIANSHAODIRETIANNEIBUDEHUIGUANLIANG。YINWEIHUIGUANTAIDUOHUIYINGXIANGSHENBULIUTIDEBUCHONGERDAOZHIRECHUWENDUXIAJIANG。


6我国西藏羊八井地热田

YANGBAJINGDIRETIANWEIYULASASHIXIBEIYUE90km,RETIANZI1976NIANKAISHIKANCHA,1977NIAN9YUEKAISHI1MWSHIYANJIZUFADIAN,CIHOUZHUANGJIRONGLIANGZHUJIANZENGDA,1991NIANWANCHENGYANGBAJINGDIREDIANZHANZHUANGJIRONGLIANG25.18MW,SHIWOGUOZUIZAOKAIFADE,YESHIWEIYIRENGRANFADIANYUNXINGDEGAOWENDIRETIAN。

热田的面积为14.6km2 ,分为南、北两区,以中尼公路为界。南区以第四系砂砾层等构成孔隙热储,有黏土和含砾黏土等构成盖层,热储温度最高161℃。北区以基岩裂隙热储为主,薄层的第四系为盖层,热储温度172~202℃。

1991NIANYIQIAN,YANGBAJINGRETIANNEIGONGSHIZUANDIREJING70YAN,ZONGJINCHI19430.42m,QIZHONGKANTANJING20YAN、TANCAIJIEHEJING8YAN、SHENGCHANJING40YAN、HUIGUANJING2YAN。ZUANJINGSHENDUDADUOXIAOYU500m,QIZHONG500~I000mDEJING3YAN,DAYU1000mDEJING2YAN。ZUANYUJIYANDEJINGKONGGONG39GE,ZHANZUANJINGZONGSHUDE56%。YOUYUZHONGZHONGYUANYIN,BUFENZAOQIDESHENGCHANJINGLUXUBAOFEI,1993NIANZAIBIANDESHENGCHANJING26YAN,NANQU、BEIQUGE13YAN。SUIZHEDIRETIANDEKAICAI,RETIANQIANCENGWENDUCHANGCHUXIANBIANHUA,ZAI20SHIJI80NIANDAIJIFAXIANRETIANNANQUGAOWENFANWEISHOUSUO,RETIANBEIQUDONGNANBUYIXIEJINGZHONGWENDUXIAJIANG。

棋乐游YANGBAJINGDIREDIANZHANZHUANGJIRONGLIANGZI1991NIANDADAO25.18MWHOUMEIYOUZAIZENGJIA。WEILEYANGBAJINGDIREFADIANDEKECHIXUSHENGCHAN,XIZANGDIZHIKUANGCHANKANCHAKAIFAJUHEDIREDIZHIDADUIZAIYANGBAJINGTOURULERETIANSHENBUDIREZIYUANDEKANCHA。1993NIAN11YUEZAICHASANGGOUBEIDUANZUANCHENGZK4002JING,ZHONGJINGSHEN2006.8m,ZAIZUANDAO1850mSHIJINGXIAWENDUJIUGAODA262℃;1994NIAN3YUEXIALVGUANHOUYONGQIJUYINPENCHENGGONG,1994NIAN5YUE8RICEDECHENGJINGHOUHUIFUDEZUIGAOWENDUWEI329.8℃。

1995NIAN9YUE17RI~1996NIAN10YUE15RIWANCHENGLEZK4001JING,ZHONGJINGSHENDU1459.09m,JINGXIAZUIGAOWENDU251℃。GAIJINGZAIFANGPENGUOCHENGZHONGWENDUYOUSHANGSHENGQUSHI,LIULIANGWUSHUAIJIAN,ERQIEWUXUYINPEN,FANGPENCHIXUBANGEYUE,JINGKOUWURENHEGOUWUCHENDIAN,JINGKOUGONGZUOYALI1.47MPa,DUANYA0.49MPa,JINGKOUWENDU200℃,QISHUIZONGLIANG302t/h,JUCIJISUANDANJINGFADIANKEDA12MW。

RIBENGUOJIXIELIJIGOU(JICA)YU2000~2004NIANQIJIANZIZHULEXIZANGYANGBAJINGDIREZIYUANDIAOCHAXIANGMU,SHIGONGLEYIKOUZUANJING(CJZK3001),ZHONGKONGSHENDUWEI2254.5m。YONGZHUANYECEJINGZHUANGZHICELIANGJIEGUOBIAOMING,GAIKONGJIECHUANLESHEN、QIANLIANGGECENGDUAN。QIANDUANWENDUWEI150℃,SHENDUANWENDUWEI270℃。KUANGWUBAOGUOTICEDEDEWENDUYUCIXIANGDANG(GONGQIZHENYIDENG,2006)。DANSHI,YOUYUJISHUYINSU,GAIKONGWEINENGHUODELIULIANGZUGOUDESHUIZHENGQI。

YOUCIKEJIAN,YANGBAJINGRETIANSHENBUDIREZIYUANDEKAIFAQIANJINGKEGUAN(DUOJI,2005)。


7我国台湾清水地热田

TAIWANDICHUHUANTAIPINGYANGHUOHUANDEXIDUAN,YESHIOUYABANKUAIYUFEILVBINHAIBANKUAIDEHUIJUBIANJIE。QIANGLIEDEDIQIAOHUODONGZAOJIULEFENGFUDEDIREZIYUAN。YIJINGFAXIANDEHUOSHANYUWENQUANCHULUDIANDADAOBAIGE。

大屯火山区的地热田有较大的地热发电潜力。其中清水热田的热储温度达到225℃。该热田在1977年建立了1.5MW的地热电站。1981年达到3MW的发电能力。但是,第一年实际出力仅为1.18MW。到第三年下降至0.52MW。到1993年下降至0.18MW,从而被迫关闭。据后来研究,矿物沉淀结垢是导致出力急剧下降的主要原因。但也有人认为是由于酸性地热流体(热储中含有大量H2S气体导致pH小于2)使地热电站的设备(井、管、发电机组等)受到严重腐蚀问题无法解决而很难加以开发利用。


本文选自:《中国电气工程大典》第七卷第七篇。第七篇主编:汪集暘、吴治坚、李颂哲、马伟斌、庞忠和等。


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